Who won the First World War (1914-1918)?
Malini VK - Infobite Jun 18, 2019
1918 was a year of last battles, conclusions, new beginnings, and heavy loss of lives.
What happened to Germany?
- Russia declared peace with Germany. Hence the German soldiers who were guarding the eastern fronts were back. With additional soldiers, Germany grew stronger and planned for an offensive attack on the Allies.
- Though Germany saw initial victories in the Second Battle of Somme in March 1918, it did not last longer until U.S troops entry.
- Germany faced heavy loss and casualties from Allies counterattack in the Second Battle of Marne in July 1918. The after events proved to be a clear evidence of Germany's decline from the war.
- Germany signed armistice with the Allies on 11 November 1918. The official declaration of the end of World War I was made in the peace treaty " Treaty of Versailles" on 28 June 1919.
- Allies blocked German ships carrying food even after signing armistice. It was estimated nearly half a million people lost their lives due to starvation and diseases. After a series of fighting, Allies provided food and relief measures to Germany.
- Treaty of Versailles between Germany and Allies officially ended the war. The treaty demanded Germany to officially take the responsibility for starting the war and to pay for economic reparations. German troops were reduced to 100,000 and the country was prevented from possessing major military armaments.
Transformations in Eurasia (Europe and Asia):
- The aftermath of World War I brought drastic political, economic, and cultural changes across Europe and Asia.
- Four empires Germany, Russia, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire were collapsed, and their boundaries were redrawn.
- Six countries formed as a direct result of the war were Poland, Czechoslovakia, Austria, Hungary, Yugoslavia, and Estonia.
- Allies provided relief measures and food to all the affected nations.
- Nearly 8,500,000 soldiers were dead during the war from 1914 to 1918.
- The heaviest loss of lives for a single day occurred on 1 July 1916 during the Battle of Somme where the British army suffered 57,470 casualties.
- The number of civilian deaths was estimated to be higher than the military casualties. More than 13,000,000 civilians were dead due to starvation, disease, military encounters, exposure, and massacres.
World War I came to an end in Europe, Asia and even in areas outside who were directly participated by signing many peace treaties.